The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States

Guest Commentary by Anita Fernandes

Scientists and researchers from around the globe have warned that climate change is the greatest threat to human health in history.

In fact, the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that all life on our planet is under existential threat.

From hurricanes and floods to drought and catastrophic wildfires, there’s no denying that climate change is affecting us right now. However, climate change also poses long-term problems particularly to sustainability issues that impact our economy, society and health.

In focus: The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States

1. Temperature-related illnesses
Rising temperatures have direct and indirect effects on human health. Higher temperatures lead to an increase in the incidence of heatstroke, hyperthermia and dehydration-related deaths. High temperatures pose a greater risk to those with existing health problems such as cardiovascular, respiratory and kidney conditions.

It is difficult to calculate heat-related morbidity and mortality but researchers predict that future warming will result in an increase of from 2,000-to-10,000 deaths annually in each of 209 US cities.

This may seem like inordinately inflated figures until we consider that the 2003 European heat wave was responsible for approximately 70,000 premature deaths.

Higher temperatures are also linked to the spread of infectious diseases due to the increased populations of vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks.

Since the 1990s, the number of cases of Lyme disease (spread through deer ticks) has more than doubled in the US and affects approximately 300,000 Americans annually.

2. Extreme weather events
Weather extremes such as heat waves, droughts, tornadoes and hurricanes pose a significant threat to human health. Extreme heat was a rare occurrence in the USA just 50 years ago but now, extreme summer heat occurs about 7 per cent of the time.

We have also seen increases in concurrent droughts as well as heavy downpours and as the climate continues to warm, the number of fatalities will rise dramatically in the US.

Extreme weather events also have a significant impact on the country’s economy. For instance, hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria in 2017 cost over US$300 billion in damages.

Hospitals that are affected by hurricanes are forced to grapple with recovery costs in the following year — which is likely to have a negative impact on their operating performance.

Extreme weather events also cause damage to roads and bridges which disrupts access to hospitals and health care services.

3. Air pollution
Climate change impacts air quality and conversely, air quality impacts climate change. Hotter summers pose a serious health risk as the increased temperature results in stationary domes of hot air that trap air pollutants in the lower atmosphere.

These “stagnation events” have become more prevalent especially in cities as data shows that 83% of US cities have experienced an increase in stagnant days.

This also increases the risk of ground-level ozone — which is a dangerous air pollutant that causes chest pain and coughing and can worsen asthma, bronchitis and emphysema.

People with a history of these respiratory problems are at a higher risk of pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases. Increased CO2 coupled with higher temperatures increases the growth rate of plants such as ragweed that are linked to allergies and asthma episodes.

Pneumonia information (“What you need to know”) is at: https://www.everydayhealth.com/pneumonia/guide/

4. Food and water shortages
Increased water temperatures brought on by climate change affects the habitat range for fresh water and can increase marine algae that produce toxins. Furthermore, flooding compromises human waste water treatment and can compromise drinking water leading to water shortages.

Reduced rainfall leads to diminished flow in rivers and streams which subsequently results in an increased concentration of harmful pollutants in these waters.

Similarly, climate changes in the American Southwest has resulted in less precipitation which has resulted in more severe and longer periods of drought. Crops fail to mature due to the lack of precipitation, which can lead to food shortages and food insecurity.

5. Mental health effects
Studies show that visits to the emergency department for mental illness and attempted suicides increase with higher temperatures. Furthermore, extreme heat poses greater risks to the physical and mental health of people with mental illnesses.

Disasters such as flooding and prolonged droughts can result in severe and even chronic mental health disorders including anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorders. Increases in extreme heat also increase the risk of death for people with mental illnesses.

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Guest author Anita Fernandes has been writing extensively on health and wellness for over a decade. She has expertise in nutrition, fitness, public health, and weight loss and has contributed content to a variety of leading digital health publishers.

Anita has a unique perspective on healthy living and lifestyle, as she has battled and overcome eating disorders and obesity. She shares her experiences in an effort to help others overcome the physical and mental health problems that can sometimes seem insurmountable.

“Trust” — Think About How Important It Is in Our Personal and Business Lives

by Hank Boerner – G&A Institute

This week I was among the fortunate to be named to the Trust Across America / Trust Around the World organization’s annual recognitions of respected thought leaders who advance arguments about the importance of building / protecting / enhancing / projecting “trust” in our personal, business and organizational lives.

I was named to the thought leader award roster in 2011, 2012, 2013, 20i4, and this year — and so, with 14 other thought leaders, I’ve also been named to the first “Lifetime Achievement Award” by TAA.  This is a great honor for me, and also humbling.

I’m honored to be among such distinguished colleagues, leading thought leaders on trust , including author: Patricia Aburdene (Megatrends); Steven Covey (prominent “trust” author); Medtronic’s former CEO Bill George; Leslie Gaines Ross (Weber Shandwick); trust coach Charles Green; and others of similar stature — the list is at: http://www.trustacrossamerica.com/offerings-thought-leaders-2015.shtml

As a journalist, writer on societal issues, corporate manager, and then consultant to managements and boards, throughout my career I’ve been sharing knowledge of the importance of Trust.

Trust in the leader, trust in the organization, trust in products — these are important resources that can bring the enterprise through a crisis situation.  This applies to both organizations and leaders in the private, public and social sectors — think about the busting-of-trust by brand name leaders who quickly fall from grace; of government officials who in an instant achieved infamy; of not-for-profit or public institutional leadership who squandered trust and good will.  (They, unfortunately, can seem to be legion!)

I’ve had the good fortune to work for and with, outstanding men and women in leadership roles who first built trust as the foundation for the enterprises that they would then build and manage.  I’ve written about them in other places.

“TRUST” in an ancient concept coming down to us through such languages as Old Norse (think: Vikings and the civilizations of Scandinavia); various Old English roots; Dutch; German; and even more ancient languages).  The term conveyed (and I think still conveys) important [modern & ancient] human concepts:  faith/faithful; agreement or covenant; comfort; true/truthful…)

“Trust” if you think about it is at its core a bargain that we make with others, and really with ourselves as well, to keep the faith / to be true (to our words and in our actions) / to keep the agreement with others to live up to theirs and our expectations regarding “trust.”

This Week’s Headlines – and Broken Trust

As I learned of my award, I was humbled, and proud, and reflective.  I thought about my work over the decades in helping others to understand and build trust; of leaders and enterprises who broke the trust with stakeholders; and of leaders who leveraged the valuable treasure (trust they built over time) to gain competitive advantage, to offset the effects of critical issues or crisis events; and I thought about leaders that I admired who conveyed trust as the most important message in their inventory of possible “key messages.”

And then I turned to the morning news and the headlines about trust leaped from the pages – such as those of  The New York Times.

There was one story focused on one of our leading “anchormen” on the NBC News Network, Brian Williams, he is backtracking from and apologizing for telling a story of surviving an attack on the helicopter he was traveling in (in the Iraq war).  The most prominent of our national storytellers (and managing editor of the NBC Nightly News) quickly was engulfed in a crisis — and stepped aside from his duties.

I was impressed by his recognition of what is at stake for him, the network and the news program when he said:  “…I will continue my career-long effort to be worthy of the trust of those who place their trust in us…”

Another story was about our healthcare records, entrusted by us to third parties, and what healthcare and other enterprises do ./ don’t do  — and what might happen to our most personal & private information.  The upsetting headline was about Anthem’s databases of patient information being hacked. This company is one of the nation’s leading healthcare organizations and as many at 80 millions of us doing business with Anthem may have had our information stolen.

This is on the heels of retailers’ records being hacked. (reflecting on the “invasion” of our financial and credit privacy through the Target data hacking).

Trust — do we have it today / will we have it tomorrow when we visit a retail store and are invited to swipe our credit card in the counter terminal? That’s an important question for retailers in fixed locations and those merchandising goods & services in the digital space.  Lack of trust (in the protection of our information) could cost retailers billions’ in lost customers and sales.

And then there is personal trust embodied in our own views and bow we might communicate those views and opinions.  Consider this:  If you think it, and don’t say or write or otherwise share it, you can think really terrible things about that bullying boss, irritating co worker, nagging family member, callous or un-trustworthy business colleague.

But if you say it…write it…email it…  in today’s “ultra-communicative” world, what is “out there” can easily come back to haunt. And so another headline was about one of the leaders of Sony’s movie studio (Amy Pascal) stepping down after her emails were hacked and made public. (The Times played this up with a cute headline: “Pascal Lands in Sony’s Outbox.”)

Can we trust our in-house emails to be protected and kept private — or should we expect something we say, or write (even of sort of to ourselves as a joke or “relief valve”) to then have “it” \splashed across media. (This episode was costly: She was co-chair of Sony Picture Entertainment.)

With thoughts of Florida – the Sunshine State – on the minds of some of us northerners during this wintery season, a story out of Tallahassee, the capital, caught national attention.  (Especially since “trust” in Florida’s governmental institutions may again be critical in the Presidential election of 2016.)

Florida Governor Rick Scott fired a law enforcement official. Florida has some unusual methods of governance; one is the “cabinet” approach, with the [separately elected statewide] Attorney General Pam Bondi, Chief Financial Officer Jeff Atwater, and Agricultural Commissioner Adam Putnam — who, with the Governor, oversee state agencies. Together they decide on hiring and firing in the state agencies.  (All are Republicans – could their actions or lack of action impact on trust in the party?)

The question of trust comes to mind as the governor apparently sidesteps answering his cabinet colleagues’ questions on about the method of the official’s “leaving” — the governor said he resigned, the official said (no) he was fired.

The high-ranking law enforcement official told reporters that he was forced out because he would not do certain things – like bring charges against political opponents (thereby politicizing the office and the criminal justice system).

Also catching my attention was the sudden “explosion” of news & commentary around something that Americans have long taken for granted”  vaccinating against serious diseases. (There is an epidemic of measles cases in a number of states.)

I remember from my childhood getting measles, mumps, whooping cough, and other vaccinations.  Everyone got the shots. As a young adult I was first on line to get (first) the sugar tablet and then the needle containing polio vaccinations.

Now we have the spectacle of political leaders jumping into an important  public health discussion to crassly try to leverage parental fears and anxiety into personal political advantage as they eye upcoming primary campaigns.

Of course, we have the right to have our own opinions and to express these; for the common good, we also have the responsibility to do our part to protect the public health.  My child should not infect your child if that is possible to avoid (say, through community-wide vaccinations).

But, but – there is always a but.  Some people in this debate ask…what about our trust in the vaccination process…in the methodology behind the vaccination…in the drug manufacturer creating the product that we will accept into our bodies…what about the public sector officials who tell us of the necessity and safety of the vaccine?  Trust — or lack of — that is what is on the table here!

Finally for this round, I see the headline of Standard & Poor’s organization paying US$1.3 billion in penalties for its role in putting favorable ratings on subprime mortgage package offerings to institutional investors — that helped to bring about the 2007-2008 global crisis in the financial markets.  Trust — that is what investors had in mind when they looked at the S&P ratings.  Will they trust S&P ratings again in the future?

Trust, we can conclude, is a concept important to our enjoying an orderly society, to our personal well-being, and to getting to the facts and the truth in matters of importance to us. Trust is worth thinking about — every day, in all of our relationships!

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For information about my awards and Trust Across America, you can check these links:

http://www.justmeans.com/press-release/top-thought-leaders-in-trust-2015-awards-gai-chairman-hank-boerner-named-lifetime

TAA: http://www.trustacrossamerica.com/